This third letter is to the believers in Pergamum (or Pergamos), which was a beautiful and art-filled city in the province of … The Gods lived on top of the hill. Pergamum was the chief center of cultural and intellectual life of the "Hellenistic" world. Possible coinage of the Greek ruler Gongylos, wearing the Persian cap on the reverse, as ruler of Pergamon for the Achaemenid Empire. Pergamum is listed third of the ‘seven churches of Asia’ (Rev. The Heroön – a shrine where the kings of Pergamon, particularly Attalus I and Eumenes II, were worshipped. The altar’s stairs, columns, and sculptured sides once stood forty feet (12 meters) high. To the west of the acropolis, the Selinus River (modern Bergamaçay) flows through the city, while the Ketios river (modern Kestelçay) passes by to the east. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Christ says to the church that He knows where they dwell, "where Satan's seat is". The Second World War also caused a break in work at Pergamon, which lasted until 1957. The street included a drainage system, which carried the water down the slope.  These mythic connections seem to be late and are not attested before the 3rd century BC.  In AD 663/4, Pergamon was captured by raiding Arabs for the first time. Church in Pergamum, Seven Church of Revelation Turkey, Seven Churches of Revelation, Biblical Tour Guide is a web site where we share with you our knowledge and offer you our top services.  The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. The key signs of this development are primarily the halls built under Eumenes II, whose back chambers were probably used for trade. Today, all that's left of the city of Pergamum, now in modern-day Turkey, are ruins. The great temples and dramatic theater are visible from anywhere in the city, as they were meant to be. At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level. The early Attalids erected the first structures of the upper (royal) city, but the later kings Eumenes II and Attalus III, by their extensive building and rebuilding, were chiefly responsible for the city’s great architectural and artistic reputation. On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC. Sometimes, to avoid persecution, or to just “get along”, we take the easy route and coexist. They have played support for bands such as I Killed The Prom Queen, Bring Me The Horizon (UK), The Red Shore, The Ghost Inside (US) & Deez Nuts. This theater is one of the steepest ones preserved in Turkey today. Anyone traveling to the city of Pergamum would encounter the image and smoke from the throne miles before reaching the city. Philatarius founded Pergamum in the 3rd Century B.C. Over time the so-called 'Upper agora' was developed at the south end of this. Pergamon (Ancient Greek: Πέργαμον or Πέργαμος), or Pergamum, was an ancient Greek city in modern-day Turkey, in Mysia, today located 16 miles (26 km) from the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakırçay), that became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 281–133 BC. The great temples and dramatic theater are visible from anywhere in the city, as they were meant to be. In particular, after the Battle of Sardis in 261 BC against Antiochus I, Eumenes was able to appropriate the area down to the coast and some way inland. At a height of 36 metres, it is the steepest of all ancient theatres. Under Attalos I some minor changes were made to the city of Philetairos. The Great Altar of Pergamon, on display in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany, For the altar's construction, the required flat area was skillfully created through terracing, in order to allow it to be oriented in relation to the neighbouring Temple of Athena. Pergamum was one of the most prominent cities of Asia, located in the western part of Asia-Minor, about 45 miles north of Smyrna and about 20 miles from the Aegean Sea. Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. About 9.5 metres in front of the east-facing building, there was an altar, which was 7 metres long and 2.3 metres wide. https://www.britannica.com/place/Pergamum, UNESCO World Heritage Convention - Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Pergamon, Turkey, Pergamum - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The Sanctuary of Athena is the oldest known Temple in Pergamon and dates back to the 4 century BC. Hadrian raised the city to the rank of metropolis in 123 and thereby elevated it above its local rivals, Ephesus and Smyrna.  Inscriptions in the gymnasium which mention a library might indicate, however, that the building was located in that area.. Corrections? Roman remains include an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a racetrack. The first temple of the imperial … The adjacent Library with a double-aisled Stoa was added later, during Eumenes II, around 197 to 159 BC. Today it is visible yet in the Pergamum Museum in the city -- get this -- of East Berlin! Updates? The altar to Zeus was one of the most impressive structures in Pergamum. During the reign of Eumenes II and Attalos II, there was a substantial expansion of the city. The Caicus was navigable for small native craft. Pergamum, a city of the Roman province of Asia, in the west of what is now Asiatic Turkey, occupied a commanding position near the seaward end of the broad valley of the Caicus. Archeology has found many gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed. The columns of the temple are unfluted and retained bossage, but it is not clear whether this was a result of carelessness or incompleteness. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. PERGAMOS; PERGAMUM. The temple and the altar were built for Demeter by Philetaerus, his brother Eumenes, and their mother Boa. When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome. The people lived below the mountain. the ancient capital of this kingdom; now the site of Bergama, in W Turkey. The Attalids made the city of Pergamum one of the most important and beautiful of all Greek cities in the Hellenistic Age; it is one of the most outstanding examples of city planning in that period. The Altar which was taken away from Pergamon in 1871 and carried to Germany by the German engineer Carl Humann, is exhibited at the Museum of Pergamum in Berlin, in a manner conforming to its original. One of the … Pergamum Read More » Zu Entwicklung und Stadtstruktur von der Neugründung unter Philetairos bis in spätantike Zeit,", Klaus Grewe, Ünal Özis, et al.  The surface of the street consisted of andesite blocks up to 5 metres wide, 1 metre long and 30 cm deep. At this time, the system is being repaired so the larger busses have to hire a … It corresponds to the third of seven Kingdom of Heaven parables told by our Lord Jesus in Matthew Chapter 13 which is the Parable of the Mustard Seed. Thus the size and arrangement of the rooms differed from house to house. The eastern area was replaced with a bath complex in Roman times. In addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. Today, only the steps around the altar’s base can be seen in the Pergamum museum in Berlin. The plan of Pergamon was affected by the extreme steepness of the site. The once-thriving city lay forgotten and in ruins till 1864 when German engineer Carl Humann began excavating it, finding one of antiquities’ greatest monuments, the Altar of Zeus. Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey. Jesus had John to pass along one of His prophetic letters to Pergamos (also referred to as Pergamum), in which He says: “I know thy works, and where you dwell, even where satan’s seat is.” To that end, you might be familiar with the coexist bumper sticker that was popular some years ago. This terrace had no space for the circular orchestra which was normal in a Greek theatre, so only a wooden stage building was built which could be taken down when there was no performance taking place. 641–668). For a period he enjoyed success, defeating and killing the Roman consul P. Licinius Crassus and his army, but he was defeated in 129 BC by the consul M. Perperna. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 - Page 526. Initially they ruled Pergamum as vassals of the Seleucid kingdom, but Eumenes I declared himself independent of Antiochus I (263 bce). Under the Roman Empire the city was situated on the plain below. Seating capacity of this theater is estimated at 10,000 people. "The Idea of the Library as a Classical Model for European Culture,". For more detail, click on individual Church name.. Church of Pergamos Revelation 2:12-16. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Christ says to the church that He knows where they dwell, "where Satan's seat is". As a result, the area has a strongly inland character. The pronaos was four columns wide and two columns deep and was accessed by a staircase of twenty-five steps. Here you can find information about the history of ancient Turkey, about biblical sites to visit in Turkey and Greece, major Christian Saints, missionary journeys of St. Paul and Seven Churches of St. John. The southeast slope and the whole western slope of the hill were now settled and opened up by streets. The city of Pergamum (Pergamos) had been the capital of the Roman province of Asia for two centuries after it's last king,Attalus III, bequeathed it to Rome in 133B.C.  Its character became much more spectacular and focussed on the two new structures looming over it, especially the altar which was visible on its terrace from below since the usual stoa surrounding it was omitted from the design.
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